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Antibiotic Resistance

18 November 2016

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Antibiotic Resistance

What is antibiotic resistance? [1]
When an antibiotic cannot effectively control or kill the growth of bacterial or microorganism is known as antibiotic resistance. In the other word, the bacteria are “resistant” and continue to grow or multiply in the presence of antibiotic.

Why do bacteria become resistant to antibiotics? [1]
Antibiotic resistance is a natural phenomenon. When an antibiotic is used, bacteria that can resist that antibiotic have a greater chance of survival than those that are “susceptible”. Some resistance occurs without human action where a bacteria can produce and use antibiotics against other bacteria, leading to a low-level of natural selection for resistance to antibiotics. But the current higher-levels of antibiotic-resistant bacteria are attributed to the overuse and abuse of antibiotics. For example, patient will take antibiotics unnecessarily to treat viral illnesses such as the common cold.

Consequences of bacteria resistance

The danger of antibiotic resistance is that treatable diseases, such as pneumonia and tuberculosis could become incurable. This would put a greater economic and emotional burden on individual, society and healthcare system.

Antibiotic resistance may results in increased human illness, suffering and death; increased cost and length of treatments, and increased side effects from the use of multiple and more powerful medications. [2]

Infections caused by antimicrobial-resistant organisms also may require more toxic therapy that can leading to more or serious of adverse outcomes. For example, the use of colistin for highly resistant Pseudomonas or Acinetobacter infections is associated with a high risk of renal dysfunction [3]. Patients who infected with organisms those are resistant to all available antimicrobials often require surgical procedures to remove the site of infection. However, patients with infections that are not advisable or cannot undergo surgical will have high mortality rates. [4]
Prevention and control [5]

Individuals

  • Only use antibiotics when prescribed by a certified health professional.
  • Do not use antibiotic when antibiotic is unnecessary in the treatment
  • Adherence to the antibiotic treatment and do not leftover the antibiotic.
  • Prevent infections by a good hygiene habit such as regularly by washing hands before and after working or eating, avoiding close contact with sick people, and keeping vaccinations up to date.

Health professionals

  • Prevent infections by ensuring your hands, instruments, and environment is always in a clean condition.
  • Prescribe the antibiotic according to the guideline
  • Always report antibiotic-resistant infections to surveillance teams.
  • Counsel the patient how to use the antibiotic properly, do not leftover the antibiotic and danger of bacteria resistance

Agriculture sector

  • The antibiotic only can be given to animals under veterinary supervision.
  • Prohibited of antibiotic use for growth promotion or prevention of diseases.
  •  The animal should vaccinate to reduce the need for antibiotics and use alternatives to antibiotics when available.
  • Biosecurity on farms should be improving and infection can be prevented by improved hygiene and animal welfare.

By pharmacy Department, Sri Kota Specialist Medical Centre

References:

  1. General Background about Antibiotic Resistance. Alliance For the Prudent Use of Antibiotic. http://emerald‌.tufts.edu/med/apua‌/about_iss‌ue/about‌_antib‌ioticres‌.shtml. Retrieved 17/11/16.
  2. Impact of antibiotic resistance. Date modified 30-09-2014. Government of Canada. ‌http://‌healthycanadians.gc.ca/drugs-products-medicaments-produi‌ts/‌buying-using-achat-utilisation/antibiotic-resistance-antibiotique/impacts-repercussions-eng.php. Retrieved 17/11/16.
  3.  Levin AS, Barone AA, Penco J, et al Intravenous colistin as therapy for nosocomial infections caused by multidrug-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Acinetobacter baumannii. Clin Infect Dis 1999; 28:1008-11.
  4. Harris A, Torres,Viera C, Venkataraman L, DeGirolami P, Samore M, Carmeli Y Epidemiology and clinical outcomes of patients with multi-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Clin Infect Dis 1999;28:1128-3
  5. Antibiotic Resistance. October 2016 WHO fact sheet  http://www.‍.int/m//anresistance/en/. Retrieved 17/11/16.